The Stark Truth: Interview with Benjamin Noyles – introduction to Integralism as an ideology and alternative to mainstream politics

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Benjamin Noyles” (Voice of Reason, 15 June 2012)

Ah, that Robert Stack, how I love him, fearlessly striding into no-go media zones where the mainstream news and current affairs media avoid like one hundred raging plague epidemics: in this episode he interviews Benjamin Noyles of the Integralist Party of the United Kingdom. Noyles talks about Integralist philosophy and policies and how the party’s approach differs from that of other political parties in Britain; the importance of principles for parties based on nationalism, such as the BNP; the importance of nation, national identity and national life; and building a movement among a nation’s youth. Noyles is a passionate speaker who all but runs away with whatever question or topic Stack puts to him and it’s major work indeed just trying to keep up with him. A sneeze on my part and I’ve lost him forever so I have to re-run the interview. Fortunately the topics he deals with are interesting and important ones about politics, society and culture so I’m not worried about having to replay the interview several times.

To understand what Noyles is saying, listeners really have to do some background research on Integralism as a philosophy. The nation is an organic unity and institution in which social differentiation and hierarchy naturally exist with the different social classes co-operating with one another. To that end, Integralism supports the existence of trade unions or guilds, corporatism (a system of political / economic / social structures in which people are organised into corporate groups on the basis of common interests such as work) and organic political representation that reflects the structure of society. It follows that different countries might have different forms of Integralism as no two countries will have the same corporate structures and organisations and their corporate-based political representation will also be very different. The citizens will identify with their country as an end in itself and therefore nationalism is seen as a positive force. The political / social tendency is towards conservatism, preserving values and traditions that are believed to represent the nation and the people, though economic practice may not necessarily be conservative in the sense usually understood. A social welfare state might fit in easily in this set-up if economic egalitarianism is valued by the people as part of their national identity; on the other hand, if economic egalitarianism is not such a big deal and individualism, economic self-reliance and resourcefulness are more valued, a welfare state might be frowned upon and the country will do without it.

Having that as our context, we can start to understand Noyles when he explains the policies and strategies of the Integralist Party of the United Kingdom, and what he considers are the mistakes that far right-wing parties in the UK have made. He considers that right-wing parties try to make themselves respectable to the public and this is a great mistake; rather these parties should be aiming at empowering people to believe in the nation as their highest goal and value and to subsume themselves and their energies and talents in working for the nation. He and Stark discuss the Wikipedia article on Integralism in some detail which then leads into a brief talk about the history of fascist political groups in Britain. Other topics covered include the current state of liberalism in the West. I must confess that for much of the first half-hour of the interview, I was lost as Noyles covered so much territory, drawing in human rights abuses in Iraq committed by the United States, the way in which Adolf Hitler’s name is used to silence people and block debate about important issues, and criticisms of Integralism and mild forms of fascism by so-called liberal groups, among other things.

After a break, Noyles continues with criticism of current economic systems and neo-liberalism and how these have degraded culture, society and the natural environment.

The interview can be hard to follow and repeated listenings will be necessary for most people to get a hang of what Stark and Noyles discuss. I suggest that to get a better idea of Integralism and Noyles’s beliefs, listeners should refer to the website of the Integral Party of the United Kingdom highlighted in the first paragraph above and explore it. Looking at the website myself, I can see how people equate the party with fascism though Noyles emphasises that Integralist ideology is different from classical fascism: Integralist ideology is about devolving power to corporate groups whereas classical fascism seeks to centralise it.

My major criticism of Integralism is that among other things it depends on everyone as individuals and as members of corporate groups agreeing on what ideals and values are representative of the nation and which are worth striving for. Social differentiation and hierarchy are seen as natural but what do Integralists do if hierarchy, through natural tendencies, drifts into a situation where the upper classes and lower classes disagree on values and their interests start to clash? What if national ideals and values start to conflict, how will leaders and their followers agree on which ideals and which values take higher priority? Will an Integralist society also be a flexible society, able to promote original thinking and innovations in political, economic and cultural practices, and ready to adapt to external traumas that can’t be avoided and which wreak irreversible changes to the society?

 

The Stark Truth: Interview with Ellen Brown – excellent interview ranging across several inter-related topics in banking and debt

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Ellen Brown” (Voice of Reason, 1 June 2012)

I’ve come across Ellen Brown’s “Web of Debt” website before and am familiar with her articles singing the praises of public banking and the Bank of North Dakota in particular so I was pleased to see that Robert Stark has an interview with her uploaded to the Voice of Reason radio network. In the interview, Brown talks about her book “The Web of Debt”, the history of banking, the benefits of public banking, health care in the United States and why the United States allows so many illegal immigrants into the country from Mexico. All these topics are linked by the theme of debt and how debt transfers power from the public and governments to the financial industry and the major global banks in particular.

Brown has quite a sharp, almost twangy voice with a strong American accent which can be a little off-putting to non-Americans. She speaks very well and clearly and listeners not familiar with the topics she specialises in can follow her easily. “The Web of Debt” discussion is threaded with “The Wizard of Oz” metaphors and quotations: the comparison is apt because in the original Frank L Baum book, the Wizard had a lot of power until Dorothy’s dog pulled the curtain away and revealed him to be a very ordinary man; likewise, the banks are powerful because their operations are shrouded in secrecy and it’s only when we stop giving our power to them that they are revealed as being built on foundations of sand. The discussion of the book leads into a discussion of other books – namely accounting books – and the development of banking and interest over the centuries beginning in ancient times.

Brown acknowledges that a public central bank is impossible at the Federal level with both the Democratic and Republican parties more or less ideologically opposed to instituting a Federal public bank encompassing all 50 states. Such an institution would be opposed by the powerful Wall Street banks and related interests, on whom many Congress representatives might be dependent for election campaign funding. The aim of the Public Banking Institute, of which she is the current chairperson and President, is to establish public central banks at State and County levels. County and State revenues would fuel public banks and enable them to lend to borrowers at very low levels of interest.

The Bank of North Dakota is geared towards financing and promoting State projects, especially in agriculture and energy projects. The bank also lends money to small businesses as opposed to the major private corporations. In the last few years, Brown notes that public banks have done better than private banks in the US in profitability.

Brown explains that the influx of Mexican illegal immigrants is due to Wall Street banks encouraging, even pressuring, Mexico to float its currency in the mid-1990s; the result was that the Mexican peso crashed. The central bank in Mexico was privatised abou the same time. The economy crashed as well and many small farmers lost their jobs in agriculture. They migrated to the cities looking for jobs and then started travelling to the US to find work there, often as gardeners, labourers, construction workers and domestic workers.

The issue of economic union of the US, Canada and Mexico is raised; Brown believes that such a union is now not feasible after the problems being experienced by Greece and other EU members. She suggests that Greece can still use the euro and also the drachma in parallel: the euro for international transactions and the drachma for intranational transactions.

The health care crisis and the recent reforms enacted by the Obama government come in for criticism. Brown recounts the example of her mother who needed repeated hospitalisation for various ailments, with each problem costing several thousand dollars. She comes out in favour of single-payer public medical insurance that should be offered to all American citizens which could run in parallel with private medical insurance; people could choose whether they want public medical insurance or private.

The Tobin tax is mentioned in relation to derivatives (financial contracts specifying the conditions under which two parties agree to make payments to each other for the purpose of speculation or hedging) as a brake on them and the high interest rates they generate. If a Tobin tax were placed on every stock transaction, with the seller having to pay the tax, speculation in stock markets would fall greatly.

Brown swings back to the topic of public banks, this time on a global level, and notes that three of  the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia and China – the odd one out is India) and Japan have large nationalised central banks. Neither Brazil, Russia nor China was affected by the 2008 Global Financial Crisis and all three have thriving economies with a major emphasis on large construction and infrastructure projects. Stark notes that so many of the United States’ problems could be solved wholly or in part by public banks. The chief problem is the constant psychological brainwashing in the mainstream commercial news media backed by Wall Street and its lobbyists and allies in government, government agencies and large private corporations whose senior management often go in and out of Federal government.

Overall this is an excellent interview that ranges over many related topics and illuminates many aspects of US policy with regard to illegal immigration and the state of health care and how they turn out to be aspects of the same problem.

The Stark Truth: Interview with Paul Craig Roberts – highly informative and engrossing interview with former Reagan public servant

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Paul Craig Roberts” (Voice of Reason, 25 May 2012)

Being familiar with some of Paul Craig Roberts’s articles on various websites, I was keen to hear the man himself speak about his experience as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury during Ronald Reagan’s first Presidency (1981 – 1985) and his views on what happened in New York City and Washington DC on 11 September 2001, the rise of neo-conservatism in US politics, US foreign policy in the Middle East and China, and his beliefs about future US politics and how much the US electorate can influence it. The interview runs some 56 minutes and can be accessed at this link.

PCR begins with his time in the Reagan government and his role in developing the economic policies now known as Reaganomics. This is the driest part of the interview and because he was speaking to Stark from another location through videophone or equivalent, his voice is softened and not always clear to hear. The conversation perks up when he starts discussing the outsourcing of jobs which in his view was enabled by the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and China and India’s decision to adopt free market principles and structures, freeing up a large quantity of labour which was exploited by Wall Street, combined with the arrival of the Internet which encouraged networking across national borders and barriers of physical geography. Job offshoring has had the effect of shrinking manufacturing and white collar work in the United States and impoverishing Americans, in turn leading to the impoverishment of society and culture across the country.

The Republican Party and George W Bush come in for criticism; PCR notes that a number of people prominent in Bush II’s administration had been sacked by Reagan in the 1980s for their neoconservative values and attitudes which included extreme belligerence towards to the USSR. PCR also comments on the Bush II government’s use of the 9/11 events to carry out wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and turn the US into a police state, and notes that current President Barack Obama is continuing the policies of Bush II. Political conservatism as a movement in the US has been destroyed and hijacked into supporting Israel and its ideology and imperial interests at the expense of the US as a viable political and economic entity.

After a break halfway through, PCR discusses the “military-industry complex” as originally conceived by outgoing US President Dwight D Eisenhower in 1961 in his last speech and its effect on the US. This talk flows into the topic of the demonisation of Muslims as a way of softening up the American people to accept ongoing wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and other countries in the Middle East and northern Africa. The issue of suicides in the US military also crops up as a symptom of demoralisation among soldiers. Another significant issue is the need for the US to have a major enemy to justify continued military expenditure and so China as well as the Muslim world has been drafted into the role of Global Villain.

The last part of the interview becomes a muddle as PCR ranges widely over several topics whose only connection is that they have never been mentioned in mainstream news and current affairs media. The power of Wall Street is now such that Congress is unable to re-enact in whole or in part the Glass-Steagall act, repealed in 1999, which separated investment banks from commercial banks. No significant regulation of the financial industry has taken place since the Global Financial Crisis in 2008. PCR waxes at some length about aspects of the 9/11 events such as what caused World Trade Center building 7 to fall and his belief that WTC 1 and 2 had been wired with explosives before being hit by the passenger jets. PCR opines that whether Obama is re-elected or is replaced by Mitt Romney will make no difference to Iran’s future peace prospects: regardless of whoever is in power, the Middle Eastern country is sure to be attacked by US forces.

PCR’s voice has a homely quality and he spoke at a fairly slow to medium pace so he is easy to follow. The interview is highly informative and reveals a man with many unorthodox views at odds with the official narrative adopted by mainstream news media about what happened on 9/11 and why Americans should support ongoing war in the Middle East and other parts of the world.

 

The Stark Truth: Interview with Joseph Fasciani – an informative and valuable hour with social credit / small-scale capitalism advocate

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Joseph Fasciani” (Voice of Reason, 27 April 2012)

With the global financial industry coming under greater public scrutiny and people beginning to question the assumptions underlying debt-based financial systems, perhaps it’s time to investigate social credit as a possible credible alternative to a system in which to create money, it is created as debt and thus automatically births an unequal relationship in which the lender has power over the borrower. In this episode of “The Stark Truth”, Robert Stark discusses social credit with US-born Canadian writer / poet Joseph Fasciani and various issues related to or deriving from it. The interview is highly informative though at times tough-going as I’ve already discovered with previous “The Stark Truth” episodes; if listeners’ attention wavers even for less than a minute, the thread of conversation can be lost very quickly as interviewer and interviewee range over a very wide territory of all things monetary. Fasciani has a strong interest in monetary systems, especially alternative monetary systems, and his enthusiasm for social credit and alternative economic ideas such as distributism is reflected in the depth of his knowledge about these and in his articulate speaking manner.

Although Fasciani spent the first 26 years of his life in the United States and was a successful self-employed businessman in California, he emigrated to Canada in 1969, dissatisfied with the direction of society in his native country, and much of what he talks about with Stark is about Canadian society, especially society in British Columbia and Alberta, and Canadian politics. He traces the history of social credit in Canada, how for a while it was successful and how ultimately the Canadian government under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in the 1980s throttled it by privatising so many public institutions and corporations. The fact that the social credit movement was dominated by charismatic individuals or families with few if any of the principles of social credit written down did not help the movement either. Fasciani also explains how social credit works in Canada; to me, a couple of examples he uses to illustrate its workings seem the same as what the Australian government does except here in Australia the “social credit” is called a “tax rebate”. So Australia has also been following social credit principles and I did not know that!

Interesting topics discussed include a theory on why US President Abraham Lincoln was killed in 1865 – it was apparently nothing to do with conventional explanations of John Wilkes Booth’s motivations and possibly everything to do with the President’s attempts to control money creation and supply in defiance of private banks – plus banking and finance in the Roman empire, Austrian economics, the need for small-scale capitalism, a social service tax on alcohol and tobacco (which together are responsible for 40% of health care costs in Canada), US retailing giant Walmart and the rise of Barack Obama from obscurity in Chicago to the White House and the incestuous relationships of money, as Fasciani puts it, backing him. On each topic, Fasciani dives straight into the deep end and if it weren’t for his plain style of speaking, I’d have been totally lost on several topics he speaks on.

Fasciani is a surprisingly humble man, saying at the end of the interview that he hopes Stark’s listeners gained something out of what he said for nearly an hour. Wow, there is so much to be gained just from five minutes of his time alone! Googling his name, I could not find if he had a website but he is on Facebook and has written several articles for various websites including an essay “Gaza is our Guernica” in which he deplores the Israeli genocide of the Palestinian people.

The Stark Truth: Interview with Marc Armstrong – the case for public banks

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Marc Armstrong” (Voice of Reason, 7 May 2012)

With recent public anger at the behaviour of large private banks over the last 30 years across the world, it’s time to revisit the idea of publicly owned banks that accept deposits and lend money purely to fund the production of goods and services. In Australia, all major banks are now privately owned and only the central bank, the Reserve Bank of Australia, is owned by the Australian government. In the United States, there is one publicly owned bank, the Bank of North Dakota, which funds public infrastructure projects in a state that has experienced rapid economic growth and has the lowest employment rate in a country where most states have struggling economies and many people out of work. In this episode, journalist Robert Stark interviews Marc Armstrong of the Public Banking Institute which advocates the creation of public banks at state and community level and holds the Bank of North Dakota as an ideal to emulate. The interview can be found at this link.

Armstrong makes a very strong case for public banks as major agents that stimulate investment and activity in an economy suffering downturns and credit crunches, and which moderate economic growth and prevent over-heating in the form of runaway inflation and a “two-speed” economy aka Dutch Elm disease in which some booming industries encourage capital flight away from other industries which then slump, affecting jobs and employment and other industries that depend on them. Throughout the interview Armstrong points out how public banks help economies climb out of recession, empower small businesses, create flexibility and adaptability in an economy and devolve power away from centralised institutions and give it back to communities. He points out that China has  a central public bank that serves the people and finances major infrastructure projects.

The Bank of North Dakota gets considerable attention as the US’s only major public bank and Armstrong notes that it is 100% state-owned. He talks about the history of the BND, how it was founded by farmers and the fact that the bank has so far been able to keep out-of-state corporations away from North Dakota’s agricultural industries. He notes that North Dakota has always had a strongly populist tradition and that the idea of public banking is not a “leftist” or socialist idea as some people to think but, on the contrary, has a strong libertarian appeal in that it enables communities to regain control of their money supply and use it in ways that benefit their members. Indeed, he notes that the US Constitution provides support for having public banks as creating money and regulating its value is a sovereign task of US Congress and such activity is best done through a people’s bank.

Stark asks intelligent questions from the viewpoint of Californians as he lives in the state itself and, at the time of the episode’s broadcast, the California State Assembly currently had AB2500 before it, this bill being a proposal to reintroduce public banking in the Golden Gate state. Armstrong answers questions clearly and well: the man not only knows what’s there to know about public banking, he is a Very Big Believer in the worth of public banking. At the end of the interview, Stark asks Armstrong to plug his organisation, the Public Banking Institute, and Armstrong runs through a list of activities and symposia being held to promote public banks.

This is a very important interview for all Americans and for others living in countries where public banks either don’t exist or used to exist and where private banks are held in contempt due to a history of exploitation based on debt. In case listeners are not convinced of the claims Armstrong makes for public banks or miss much of the interview – it is very involved and people must be able to follow the medium-fast flow of conversation – they can always visit the Public Banking Institute’s website or attend any activities and symposia hosted by the organisation.

The Stark Truth: Interview with Anatoly Karlin – enjoyable if demanding interview with rising young intellectual

Robert Stark, “The Stark Truth: Interview with Anatoly Karlin” (Voice of Reason, 4 May 2012)

I’ve been visiting Russian-American political analyst Anatoly Karlin’s blogs Sublime Oblivion, AKarlin.com and Da Russophile since late last year so I was keen to hear The Man speak on Robert Stark’s program on the Voice of Reason network. The interview is available for listening at this link. In the interview, Karlin discusses some of the posts he put up recently on AKarlin..com: race realism versus race denial; disparities in IQ levels among different human populations or races and the implications for future economic development and national wealth; homophobia and why homosexuality exists in all human societies despite its apparent uselessness for the survival of the human species; and the geography of global human capital and potential as measured by average PISA scores for mathematics, science and reading achieved by 15 year old students and what these say about IQ levels in populations.

Karlin seems a bit nervous during the interview with a few “ums” and “ahs” throughout but once he starts explaining his posts, he becomes more assured. He starts off explaining why and how he started his blogs which examine trends in politics, economics and culture across the world that are likely to determine what the future will be like and which countries, cultures or economies will be dominant. The kinds of questions Stark asks Karlin perhaps reflect his audience’s political preferences: he asks Karlin what he thinks of US presidential candidate Ron Paul’s attitudes towards the question of race. A quick look at past interviewees on The Stark Truth: Voice of Reason website reveals a wide range of political, social and economic viewpoints among them but the common denominator is that they are people whom the mainstream media wouldn’t touch with a six-metre barge pole.

Stark and Karlin spend a lot of time discussing issues of race and race realism and in particular proponents of race realism like liberal-leaning Robert Lindsay and the more conservative Steve Sailer. The conservation then segues into physical and cultural differences across nations and gets quite funny when Karlin explains to Stark that a world map actually exists of average penis sizes among nations. After a break halfway through the interview, the discussion moves to the geography of human capital. Stark quizzes Karlin on the high PISA results achieved by Chinese students, especially those by Shanghai-based students, compared to the low results achieved by students in oil-rich countries such as Kuwait. Near last on the agenda is homophobia, what feeds it and homophobia’s likely cultural roots in Western societies. Other topics discussed include freedom, Karlin’s own freedom index and how the United States, the United Kingdom and other selected countries (like Israel!) rate on that index. Yep, there is a definite hidden political agenda behind Stark’s questioning though it is not necessarily sinister; Stark is interested in why Russia rates as a more democratic state than China despite China being more capitalist in its economic orientation and in how the Palestinian question influences Israel’s ranking.

The discussions can be quite dry and listeners do have to pay a lot of attention but there’s not much in the interview that isn’t also in the posts on Karlin’s blogs. The posts often feature colourful graphs and maps, many of which Karlin creates himself (and some of which I found I could create too when investigating and comparing infant mortality rates for Australia, Russia and several other countries while reading one post on Da Russophile), plus there are comments forums populated by a bunch of regular visitors including Yours Trolling Truly and occasional wanderers.

I enjoyed hearing the interview though it is demanding and listeners do need to concentrate on following the subject threads.

 

Psychology of Fraud: Why Good People do Bad Things – a well-considered presentation let down by weak solutions

Chana Joffe-Walt and Alix Spiegel, “Psychology of Fraud: Why Good People do Bad Things” (National Public Radio News / All Things Considered, 1 May 2012)

A very interesting multi-media presentation that consists of an online article, a podcast and a comic strip, this joint effort combines recent psychological research on unethical behaviour and why apparently good people commit fraud and engage in immoral activities with a real-life case in a way that’s easy to read and identify with for the general public. The podcast and the article can be heard and read separately or in isolation as each doesn’t add anything that the other doesn’t already have.

The podcast is in two parts: the first part features both Joffe-Walt and Spiegel talking about Toby Groves who in 2008 was sentenced to two years in prison for carrying an incredible bank fraud that US$7 million and which drove several companies out of business, cost one hundred people their jobs and sent a company president to jail also. Groves himself also appears on the podcast, talking about how he slipped into making one unethical decision after another despite having had a moral upbringing and having promised his father as a young college student that he would never copy his older brother and go to jail for fraud.

The second part deals with Joffe-Walt and Spiegel discussing the psychological research that tries to explain why people like Groves and his employees willingly fell into criminal behaviour. Psychologists like Ann Tenbrunsel of Notre Dame University explain that when we are faced with problems, we are usually in a particular cognitive frame of mind that influences how we deal with the problems; this cognitive frame of mind itself may be influenced by our physical surroundings, the networks of people in them and the information we are receiving and how it is structured.  An example is an experiment Tenbrunsel carried out with two groups of people: one group was told to think about a business decision, the other to think about an ethical decision. The groups produced mental checklists and then were given an unrelated task to distract them. Tenbrunsel presented the groups with an opportunity to cheat. The group that had thought about the business decision was more apt to lie than the other group.

The article on NPR.org was structured in six chapters with a comic strip illustrating the relevant parts of Toby Groves’s case in each chapter. The psychology lesson first appears in Chapter 3 and comes to dominate subsequent chapters. What is really intriguing about Groves’s case is how readily people helped Groves do what they clearly knew was illegal, simply because they liked him a lot, thought he was a decent person and so wanted to help him solve his financial problems. This of course means that human beings do unethical and even criminal things, not because they are essentially immoral or amoral but because they want to be helpful, especially to people they like or look up to. Empathy for people who may be like us or who have been dealt unfairly overrides abstract considerations of right versus wrong, of the long-term cost to some vague concept such as the global environment versus the short-term cost of cheering up the person right in front of you.

The major weakness of the overall presentation was in the solutions suggested to combat this problem of how our decision-making and other cognitive processes may be influenced too much by situational factors. One solution that is suggested is forcing businesses to change auditors every two years to address the problem that close relationships with auditing firms developed over the years may corrupt audits themselves. This solution could be extended to many other aspects of company operations and processes: companies perhaps should change their accountants and lawyers every few years to avoid the corruption of their financial reporting and legal work. In practice, this might disrupt company operations and may even waste company resources. Other issues to consider include the business organisation’s culture and how it shapes people’s attitudes and loyalties: are people encouraged to speak their minds, to hold heterodox opinions and to challenge themselves or does the company demand conformity, loyalty and insularity? Are employees allowed to mix with outsiders and to discuss company issues with people outside the firm? What juicy company secrets might be spilled and passed on to competitors and the press?

There is also the situation, exemplified by News Corporation, in which senior management and other employees may try to guess what their managing director or his/her equivalent is thinking or would think and subtly communicate through body language and corporate customs, conventions and rituals what is required and what is discouraged. People, especially new employees, eager to please may fall into committing fraud and other illegal activities without even realising that what they are doing is wrong.

It’s not enough to conclude as Joffe-Walt and Spiegel do that right is right, wrong is wrong and people should know the difference: people like Toby Groves know that already yet still go ahead and do stupid things; and there are times also when what’s right and what’s wrong aren’t always clear and people may need standards and guidance to determine what to do. Companies can assist in this regard by encouraging staff to attend internal and external ethics courses, instill ethics and standards into the work culture so they become as natural as breathing, and provide back-up, counselling and legal advice in cases where individuals are in danger of making grave mistakes or have already done so. People also need a proper work-life balance so that they are able to pursue individual and other group-oriented interests and become well-rounded beings rather than hollow workaholics lacking a moral and spiritual dimension.

Ultimately companies don’t operate in a social vacuum; if companies and/or their employees behave in a less-than-moral fashion, that’ll be because our society sanctions their behaviour. What is it about business decision-making intrinsically that can encourage people to make bad moral decisions? It boils down to values and assumptions about doing business generally, about competition and how we define it, and about success and how we define that, that we hold and which we should examine: how did these values and assumptions originate and why, and the historical context in which they arose.

The article can be accessed here.

The Art and Science of Face Perception: looking at faces is more complicated than it … looks

“The Art and Science of Face Perception” – Symposium held in conjunction with 39th Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, Saturday 14th April 2012 (Art Gallery of NSW, Sydney)

As part of the Archibald Portrait exhibition and together with the 39th Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, the Art of Gallery of NSW hosted a symposium of four talks on facial recognition and various topics related to it. Two speakers were academics from the University of Western Australia and the other two speakers came from the United States and Canada. The symposium lasted just over three hours after a late start (usual when the audiovisual equipment decides to play up at the last minute) with a short break between the second and third talks.

The first speaker, Professor Michael A Webster (University of Nevada, Reno) presented an amusing talk on how we recognise faces and the stimulus requirements our brains and eyes need to see faces in visual noise. Turns out the requirements are very minimal: the noise must be bilaterally symmetrical with a vertical axis of symmetry; light and dark spots must be close to the axis; and a pair of dark spots straddling the axis is usually all that is sufficient for people to see a pair of eyes. Once the spots are interpreted as eyes, the rest of the noise is then pulled into the “face” so perhaps lighter spots below the eyes instantly become cheeks. We see faces as whole images (holistic processing) and we also use norm-based coding (how we recognise individual faces, what cues we use as anchors for “normal” faces). Our visual systems are highly adaptable, evidenced by optical illusions and after-images of images stared at for long periods, and our brains are constantly re-calibrating and judging the information supplied by our eyes of people’s faces.

The talk turned on what controls the brain’s adaptations when it sees faces and, no surprise at all, life experience controls adaptaions: so, a person who grows up in a desert filled with red, yellow and orange backgrounds will notice green in a savanna landscape whereas a person who grows up in a tropical forest region will notice yellow in the same savanna landscape.

Second speaker Professor Gillian Rhodes (University of WA) presented “Hot or Not? The psychology and biology of beauty”, originally tailored to undergraduate university students but relevant to everyone as the topic turns on what characteristics of faces make some more “beautiful” than others. These characteristics include symmetry, sex-linked characteristics and mathematically graded average characteristics: mathematically averaged faces are found to be more attractive than the faces the averages are composites of. The issue then turned on what is an “average” face, what influences our perceptions of average faces and whether we can change our experiences to change our perceptions. Studies on this and related topics demonstrate that exposure to facial distortions can and do change preferences and aesthetic judgements, and that experience “tunes” preferences. Interestingly faces of mixed-race averages are rated most attractive, suggesting that people unconsciously seek biological factors such as good genes and genetic diversity in potential mates.

James T Enns (University of British Columbia) presented “Rembrandt and modern vision science: following the eyes of the masters”, an investigation into how the 17th century Dutch painter exploited selective details of his subject – often a self-portrait – to guide the viewer’s eye into looking at his painting for longer. Enns contrasted the use of blur and sharpness not only to guide viewers’ eyes to look at certain objects in pictures such as photographs but to influence viewers’ opinions on the personalities of people whose faces are featured in the pictures. The psychological phenomenon known as Fundamental Attribution Bias, where we overestimate personality traits but underestimate the situational context when we observe people’s behaviour (so a person who trips over a rock is automatically labelled a clumsy doofus; when the observer trips over the same rock, s/he blames the rock), was shown to have quite an influence on viewers’ opinions of pictures of people.

Romina Palermo (University of WA) presented “Face blindness: the inability to recognise identity from the face” as a straight lecture on prosopagnosia, the inability to recognise familiar faces including one’s own face and those of celebrities. Palermo gave examples of people unable to recognise human faces but able to recognise animal faces or very similar objects as individual. There are different types of prosopagnosia: acquired (caused by brain trauma or dementia) and developmental which can be inherited or can sometimes (but not always) be associated with autism. Palermo concluded her talk with methods and strategies psychologists and doctors have used to teach face recognition skills to people with the disability.

Each talk was entertaining, often humorous (the American speaker especially was self-deprecating, a quality not usually associated with Americans!) and featured very striking visual aids. The time passed so quickly that the audience was rather sorry when the last talk finished and everyone had to leave. As the symposium started late and had to finish on time, question-time at the end of each talk was very hurried and limited to two simple questions. For me the symposium was an eye-opener into just how complex face recognition issues can be and how preferences for particular faces or the “average” face can be shaped so easily: an illuminating example of how situational factors influence our choices and desires far more than we realise. Of course, this knowledge can be used for propaganda purposes and to mould public opinion against people’s better interests.

Xerox Missive 1977 / 2011: investigation of alternative, intersecting views of reality from historical archives

Ms&Mr, “Xerox Missive 1977 / 2011”, multi-channel video installation (2011)

Technically not a film but a multi-channel video art installation using old archived video recordings among other media on exhibition at the New South Wales Art Gallery (December 2011 – February 2012), this homage by the Australian art duo Ms&Mr (Richard and Stephanie nova Milne) to the American science fiction writer Phillip K Dick and his fifth wife Tessa uses old film footage of the couple as a launch-pad into investigating alternate narratives of history in which paranoia, spiritual faith and identity dominate. This work is an immersive experience: it has to be seen in a dark environment where the viewer is surrounded by four preferably very large screens onto which are projected four looped videotapes of the couple and Tessa’s jewellery. As the tapes run, an ambient looped soundtrack, also created by Ms&Mr, consisting of a rhythmic drone over which hovers a spaced-out noise ambience suggestive of giant hovering machines in a huge vacuum, cold and creepy, runs continuously and concurrently with sound recordings of Dick and Tessa making a speech or talking generally.

The films are really something to see, meshing old film footage of Dick dating as far back as 1977 when he attended a science fiction convention at Metz, France, and gave a speech about his belief that the fictional worlds he wrote of in his novels and short stories existed for real and that what we take to be real and true might actually be false, with film footage of Tessa taken by Ms&Mr in California in 2011. In one film, Tessa intrudes on the science fiction convention and sits down with Dick; in another, more remarkable film loop, the two circle each other and the camera circles them as well. Dick’s face appears to dissolve into fragmented mini-images of himself in a silhouette of his head; the camera continues to revolve around him and the images revolve and shift as well. The couple appear to float in a bright orange space like astronauts in a strange alien psychedelic universe. The voice soundtrack does not synchronise with Dick and Tessa’s moving lips or facial expressions and this lack of concurrency adds to the disorienting nature of the entire work.

The work cuts against time and memory; old archival film footage, shown in continuous repetition, loses its outdated feel and seems recent in spite of having not been tampered with at all apart from having to repeat; and seeing Dick and Tessa as a 50-something woman together looks the most natural thing in the world.

The experience of “Xerox Missive 1977 / 2011” itself is oppressive and sinister: the floating voices, the cold music and the huge screens around a dark room combine into a prison of colour, images and sound. Memories that should be warm and friendly take on a malevolent tone and even the film of still life (Tessa’s jewellery) looks otherworldly and creepy. The room, separate from the rest of the gallery by walls. might be a portal between the world of the living and the world of the dead, and the viewer confronts the real possibility that what s/he thinks is real isn’t real at all and that the world as imagined by Dick in his novels and short stories is the real world.